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Can a Scientific Theory Become a Law

07/10/2022 | objavio Radio Gradačac

“Some scientific explanations are so well established that no new evidence could change them. The explanation becomes a scientific theory. In everyday language, a theory means an idea or speculation. This is not the case in science. In science, the word theory refers to a complete explanation of an important feature of nature supported by facts gathered over time. Theories also allow scientists to make predictions about unobserved phenomena. “A theory is different from me. It can be presented on paper as a system of rules, and the more true a theory is, the more it can be completely defined in these terms. Mathematical theory achieves the highest perfection in this regard. But even a map embodies a set of strict rules for navigating an area with an otherwise unexplored experience.

In fact, any theory can be thought of as a kind of map that covers space and time. [53] Kitcher agrees with Popper that “there is certainly something right about the idea that a science can only succeed if it can fail.” [51] He also says that scientific theories contain claims that cannot be falsified, and that good theories must also be creative. He insists that we view scientific theories as a “sophisticated collection of statements,” some of which are not falsifiable, while others – those he calls “auxiliary hypotheses” – are. Certain assumptions are necessary for all empirical claims (for example, the assumption that reality exists). However, theories generally do not make assumptions in the conventional sense of the term (statements that are accepted without proof). Although hypotheses are often included in the formation of new theories, they are either supported by evidence (e.g. from pre-existing theories) or the proofs are created during the validation of the theory. This can be as simple as observing that the theory makes accurate predictions, which is proof that all the assumptions made at the beginning are correct or approximately correct under the conditions tested. These equations can be modified to include magnetic monopoles and are consistent with our observations that monopolies exist or do not exist; If they do not exist, the generalized equations are reduced to the above, when they do, the equations in electric and magnetic charges and currents become completely symmetrical.

In fact, there is a transformation of duality in which electric and magnetic charges can be “rotated into each other” while filling in Maxwell`s equations. “Assumptions, theories, and laws are more like apples, oranges, and kumquats: you can`t become another, no matter how much fertilizer and water is offered,” according to the University of California. A hypothesis is a limited explanation of a phenomenon; A scientific theory is a thorough explanation of the observed phenomenon. A law is a statement about an observed phenomenon or unifying concept, according to Kennesaw State University. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences defines scientific theories as follows: And the theory that explains gravity is the theory of general relativity. Although scientific laws and theories are supported by a large amount of empirical data accepted by the majority of scientists in this field of scientific research and which contribute to unifying it, it is not the same thing. Einstein attempted to generalize the principle of invariance to all reference systems, whether inertial or accelerated. [30] Einstein rejected Newtonian gravity– a central force that acted immediately at a distance – and suspected a gravitational field. In 1907, Einstein`s equivalence principle implied that free fall in a uniform gravitational field is equivalent to inertial motion. [30] By extending the effects of three-dimensional special relativity, general relativity extended the contraction of length to the contraction of space and imagined 4D space-time as the gravitational field that changes geometrically and determines the trajectories of all local objects. Even massless energy exerts gravitational motion on local objects by “bending” the geometric “surface” of 4D spacetime.

But if the energy is not huge, its relativistic effects of shrinking space and slowing down time are negligible if we only predict motion. Although the theory of general relativity is supposed to be the most explanatory theory of scientific realism, Newton`s theory remains successful as a simple predictive theory of instrumentalism.

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